The internal energy is thetotal amount of kinetic energy and potential energy of all the particles in the system. When energy is given to raise the temperature,particles speed up and gain kinetic energy.
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What is internal energy of a system?
Internal energy U of a system or a body with well defined boundaries is the total of the kinetic energy due to the motion of molecules and the potential energy associated with the vibrational motion and electric energy of atoms within molecules. Internal energy also includes the energy in all the chemical bonds.
What is the relationship between internal energy and work done?
The first law of thermodynamics postulates that the increase in internal energy is equal to the total heat added plus the work done by the environment. If it is an isolated system, it remains constant. Internal energy is a state function. Its value depends only on the current state of the system.
What is the law of internal energy?
Internal energy. The law also implies that if both heat and work are involved in the change of state of a system, then the change in internal energy is equal to the heat supplied to the system minus the work done by the system.
Is internal energy intensive or extensive?
Internal energy is a state function of a system and is an extensive quantity. One can have a corresponding intensive thermodynamic property called specific internal energy, commonly symbolized by the lowercase letter u, which is internal energy per mass of the substance in question.